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Independence Day

In the United States, Independence Day (commonly known as the Fourth of July) is a federal holiday commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Independence Day is commonly associated with fireworks, parades, barbecues, carnivals, picnics, baseball games, and various other public and private events celebrating the history, government, and traditions of the United States, but is often also viewed as simply a summer festival, apart from its patriotic overtones.

Why the fourth?


Hobby – is some kind of non-profit action, which makes you happy and busy. Everybody has his own hobby. For instance: sports, cooking, playing/collecting games/stamps/coins and etc, drawing and other various hobbies.
I have a lot of hobbies:
• Doing sports – I like going to Gym
• Cooking – I like making something new, especially for dinner
• Playing games – I need to be informed of new features in the Game World
• “Surfing” the Web – I need to informed also of the news on the WEB


Location: North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico
Geographic coordinates: 38 00 N, 97 00 W
Map references: North America
Area: total: 9,631,418 sq km
land: 9,161,923 sq km
water: 469,495 sq km
note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia
Area - comparative: about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; almost two and a half times the size of the European Union

Education in the United States is provided mainly

Education in the United States is provided mainly by government, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. School attendance is mandatory and nearly universal at the elementary and high school levels (often known outside the United States as the primary and secondary levels). At these levels, school curricula, funding, teaching, and other policies are set through locally elected school boards with jurisdiction over school districts. School districts are usually separate from other local jurisdictions, with independent officials and budgets.

Public and Private schools Education

Education in the United States is provided mainly by government, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. The age for beginning school is mandated by state law and therefore varies slightly from state to state, but in general children are required to begin school with a one-year Kindergarten class during the year in which they turn 4 or 5. They are required to continue attending school until the age of 16 to 18, depending on the state, with a growing number of states now requiring school attendance until the age of 18.

Culture of the United Kingdom


The United Kingdom has been influential in the development of cinema, with the Ealing Studios claiming to be the oldest studios in the world. Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry is characterised by an ongoing debate about its identity, and the influences of American and European cinema. Famous films include the Harry Potter and Ian Fleming's James Bond series which, although now made by American studios, used British source materials, locations, actors and filming crew.


Basic Hardware Components

All networks are made up of basic hardware building blocks to interconnect network nodes, such as Network Interface Cards (NICs), Bridges, Hubs, Switches, and Routers. In addition, some method of connecting these building blocks is required, usually in the form of galvanic cable (most commonly Category 5 cable). Less common are microwave links (as in IEEE 802.11) or optical cable ("optical fiber").
Network Interface Cards
Main article: Network card

Types of networks Computer network

Below is a list of the most common types of computer networks in order of scale.
Personal Area Network (PAN)
Main article: Personal area network
A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that may be used in a PAN are printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs or scanners. The reach of a PAN is typically within about 20-30 feet (approximately 6-9 metres).

Computer network

A computer network is an interconnected group of computers. Networks may be classified by the network layer at which they operate according to basic reference models considered as standards in the industry, such as the four-layer Internet Protocol Suite model. While the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model is better known in academia, the majority of networks use the Internet Protocol Suite (IP).
• 1 By scale
• 2 By connection method
• 3 By functional relationship (Network Architectures)
• 4 By network topology
• 5 By protocol

Computer language

The term computer language includes a large variety of languages used to communicate with computers. It is broader than the more commonly-used term programming language. Programming languages are a subset of computer languages. For example, HTML is a markup language and a computer language, but it is not traditionally considered a programming language. Machine code is a computer language. It can technically be used for programming, and has been (e.g. the original bootstrapper for Altair BASIC), though most would not consider it a programming language.
Characteristics of Computer Language

Before the Russian conquest

Before the Russian conquest, the Kazaks had a well-articulated culture based on their nomadic pastoral economy. Although Islam was introduced to most of the Kazaks in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the religion was not fully assimilated until much later. As a result, it coexisted with earlier elements of shamanistic and animistic beliefs. Traditional Kazak belief held that separate spirits inhabited and animated the earth, sky, water, and fire, as well as domestic animals. To this day, particularly honored guests in rural settings are treated to a feast of freshly killed lamb.

Astana Kazakh

Astana (Kazakh: Астана; former names include Akmola, Akmolinsk, Tselinograd, and Aqmola), is the capital and second largest city (behind Almaty) of Kazakhstan, with an estimated population (2007) of 577,300 [2]. It is located in the north-central portion of Kazakhstan, within Akmola Province, although it is politically separate from the rest of the province, which has its own capital.
The current mayor of Astana is Askar Mamin, formerly Minister for Transportation. He was appointed mayor on 25 September 2006.


Differences in technological progress between East and West

In my opinion, orientation of Western technologies is manufacturing: about 60% of the technologies are focused on a massive productivity and profits.

Technological progress in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan has an ambitious program to increase its technological competitiveness in the global marketplace during the next few years.

Technological priorities in English-speaking countries

Countries, where English is declared as an official language, set special priorities or goals to be more scientific and technological advanced.

Technology and its meaning Definition and usage

Technology is a broad concept that deals with the usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects the ability to control and adapt to the environment.

Kazakhstan brief

Kazakhstan has an ambitious program to increase its technological

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